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  • Writer's pictureBilly Richards

Revolutionizing the Carbon Market: Harnessing CO2's Transformative Journey in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)


Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) represents a critical technology in the fight against climate change, offering a means to significantly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources. At the heart of CCS technology lies an intricate understanding of the various phase changes CO2 undergoes throughout the sequestration process. These phases, including gaseous, supercritical fluid during compression and transport, and the final storage phase, each present unique challenges and opportunities. Understanding these transitions is not just a scientific curiosity; it’s essential for effectively designing, operating, and managing CCS systems. This article delves into these phases, unraveling the complexities and the science that make CCS a viable option in our quest to curb carbon emissions.

Carbon Dioxide - Gaseous Phase

Capture and Initial Challenges

CO2, when emitted from industrial processes, is predominantly in its gaseous form. This phase is characterized by high volume and low density, presenting significant challenges for storage. In this state, CO2 occupies a large amount of space, making it impractical to store in substantial quantities without first reducing its volume. Capturing CO2 in this phase involves sophisticated technologies such as amine scrubbing, where chemicals absorb CO2 from industrial flue gases. This process is not only energy-intensive but also requires careful handling and monitoring, given the reactive nature of the capturing agents.

Transition to Storage

Despite these challenges, the capture of CO2 in its gaseous phase is a critical first step in CCS. It is at this juncture that the groundwork for subsequent phases is laid. Effective capture ensures that a significant portion of CO2 is prevented from entering the atmosphere, marking the initial stride towards a sustainable solution for carbon emission reduction.

Carbon Dioxide - Compression and Transport

Transformation to Supercritical Fluid

Once captured, the Carbon Dioxide undergoes a dramatic transformation. It is compressed to a supercritical fluid, a state achieved when CO2 is subjected to conditions above its critical temperature (31.1°C) and critical pressure (73.8 bar). In this supercritical state, Carbon Dioxide exhibits properties of both gases and liquids. It can flow like a gas, allowing for ease of transportation through pipelines, but has a density comparable to that of a liquid, significantly reducing the volume it occupies.

Benefits for Transportation

The transition to a supercritical fluid is pivotal for making CO2 transportation feasible and efficient. This state allows for the transportation of larger quantities of Carbon Dioxide over long distances, a necessity for connecting emission sources to suitable storage sites. The dense, fluid-like nature of supercritical Carbon Dioxide minimizes the risk of leakage and reduces the energy required for transportation, making it a more environmentally friendly and cost-effective solution compared to transporting gaseous CO2.

Injection and Storage

Storing in Geological Formations

The final destination for CO2 in CCS is deep underground geological formations, such as depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline formations, or unmineable coal seams. These formations are typically located over 800 meters below the surface, where the ambient temperature and pressure are high enough to maintain CO2 in its supercritical state. This depth is crucial as it ensures the Carbon Dioxide remains dense and less likely to migrate upwards.

Advantages of Supercritical CO2

In its supercritical state, CO2 possesses enhanced storage efficiency. Its increased density compared to the gaseous phase allows for more CO2 to be stored in the same volume, making it an ideal candidate for long-term sequestration. Moreover, the supercritical CO2 is less buoyant than its gaseous counterpart, reducing the risk of it escaping to the surface. This characteristic is essential for the safety and integrity of CCS projects.

Potential Phase Changes in Geological Formations

Long-term Stability through Mineralization

Over time, CO2 stored in geological formations may undergo further phase changes, critical for the long-term stability and safety of Carbon Capture and Storage. One significant change is the dissolution of CO2 in brine, creating a slightly acidic solution. This acidic environment can facilitate mineral carbonation, a process where CO2 reacts with minerals in the host rock, leading to the formation of stable carbonate minerals. This phase change is vital as it represents the transformation of CO2 into a solid, mineral form, effectively locking it away and preventing its release back into the atmosphere.

Implications for CCS Safety

The possibility of CO2 mineralization enhances the safety profile of Carbon Capture and Storage. By converting CO2 into a solid state, the risk of leakage or unintended release is greatly minimized. Furthermore, this process contributes to the permanence of CO2 storage, ensuring that once sequestered, the carbon remains trapped for geological timescales. It also mitigates the potential environmental impact of CO2 leakage, providing an additional layer of security in CCS operations.


Understanding the various phases of Carbon in the context of Carbon Capture and Storage is more than a technical exercise; it is a cornerstone for the effective and safe implementation of CCS technologies. From its initial capture in the gaseous form, through compression into a supercritical fluid, to its long-term storage and potential mineralization in geological formations, each phase presents unique challenges and opportunities. By mastering these transitions, we can design more efficient, robust, and secure Carbon Capture and Storage systems. This knowledge is not only pivotal for mitigating the immediate impacts of carbon emissions but also crucial for ensuring the long-term stability and environmental safety of these ambitious yet essential projects in our collective effort against climate change.

Billy Richards

AI generated Chimneys

References and further reading

1.   2D Parallel Simulation of Seismic Wave Propagation in Poroelastic Media to Monitor a CO2 Geological Sequestration Process: The authors present a 2D parallel simulation of seismic wave propagation in poroelastic media to monitor a CO2 geological sequestration process. The simulation results show that the seismic wave propagation characteristics are closely related to the CO2 injection process and the geological structure of the reservoir¹.

2.   The Impact of Cement Plant Air Ingress on Membrane-Based CO2 Capture Retrofit Cost: The authors investigate the impact of air ingress from cement plants on the cost of membrane-based CO2 capture retrofit. The results show that the cost of CO2 capture increases with the amount of air ingress and the size of the cement plant².

3.   Modeling Carbon Dioxide and Methane Adsorption on Illite and Calcite: Enhancing the Simplified Local Density Model through Crystal Structure Modifications: The authors present a study on modeling carbon dioxide and methane adsorption on illite and calcite. The study enhances the simplified local density model through crystal structure modifications. The results show that the modified model can accurately predict the adsorption behavior of CO2 and CH4 on illite and calcite³.

4.   Prediction of the CH4-CO2 Mixture Properties Using SAFT-VR Mie Equation of State and Molecular Dynamics Simulations: The authors present a study on predicting the properties of CH4-CO2 mixtures using SAFT-VR Mie equation of state and molecular dynamics simulations.

The results show that the predicted properties are in good agreement with experimental data.

5.   Corrosion and Chemical Reactions in Impure CO2: The authors investigate the corrosion and chemical reactions in impure CO2. The results show that impurities in CO2 can cause corrosion and chemical reactions, which can affect the performance of CO2 capture and storage systems.

6.   Advancing PetroChina's Development Strategies for Low-Permeability Oil Reservoirs: The authors present a study on advancing PetroChina's development strategies for low-permeability oil reservoirs. The study proposes a new development strategy that integrates geological, engineering, and economic factors. The results show that the proposed strategy can improve the production performance of low-permeability oil reservoirs.

7.   Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Practices in the Enping Field, South China Sea: The authors investigate the CCS practices in the Enping Field, South China Sea. The results show that CCS can effectively reduce CO2 emissions and enhance oil recovery.

-      Carbon Capture and CO2 EOR/Storage—A Game Changer CCUS Technology - TWA.

1.   2D Parallel Simulation of Seismic Wave Propagation in Poroelastic Media to Monitor a CO2 Geological Sequestration Process

Authors: E Anthony, N Vedanti

Published: 2024 in Journal of African Earth Sciences

2.   The Impact of Cement Plant Air Ingress on Membrane-Based CO2 Capture Retrofit Cost

Authors: S Hughes, P Cvetic, R Newby, S Homsy

Published: 2024 in Carbon Capture Science & Technology

3.   Modeling Carbon Dioxide and Methane Adsorption on Illite and Calcite: Enhancing the Simplified Local Density Model through Crystal Structure Modifications

Authors: X Fu, L Wang, R Wang, B Li, Z Pan

Published: 2024 in Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics

4.   Prediction of the CH4-CO2 Mixture Properties Using SAFT-VR Mie Equation of State and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

Authors: M Sharifipour, A Nakhaee

Published: 2024 in Molecular Physics

5.   Corrosion and Chemical Reactions in Impure CO2

Published: 2024 in International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

6.   Advancing PetroChina's Development Strategies for Low-Permeability Oil Reservoirs

Authors: J Cao, M Hao, Y Chen, B Li, Z Liu, Y Liu, J Xu

Published: 2024 in Processes

7.   Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Practices in the Enping Field, South China Sea

Authors: Q Zhang, C Xia, N Rao, X Liang

Published: 2024

8.   Experimental Study on Supercritical CO2 Jet Characteristics and Coal Breakage Utilization in Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Process

Authors: Y Hu, L Chen, Z Cao, K Yang, X Yan, J Yu

Published: 2024 in Process Safety and Environmental Protection

9.   Innovative Zoning Control Techniques for Optimizing a Megaton-Scale CCUS-EOR Project with Large-Pore-Volume CO2 Flooding

Authors: Y Zhao, X Wen, Y Liu, K Du, Z Peng, C Qian, T Hu

Published: 2024 in Energy & Fuels

10.           Race to Carbon Neutrality: Prospects of Phasing Out Coal

Authors: O Sigal, N Pavliuk

Published: 2023 in Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment

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